S R I :
T A I T T I R I Y A U P A N I S H A D
( A Summary )
Rigyajur samavedaya vedaharana karmane
Pranavothgeethavabhushe mahasva sirase Nama:
Sri Lakshmi Hayagreeva Parabrahmane Nama:
Srimathe Nigamantha Mahadesikaya Nama:
For the past several years , adiyen’s feeling is ( not only mine but also many many vaishnavites )
that ” VEDAS ” are somewhat ignored by most of us, that we are not giving due importance to Vedas,
like we give to ” Divya Prabandham “.
No doubt, we are called ” Ubhaya Vedanthees “, but, it is somewhat easy for us to read and recite
” Divya Prabhandham “, as most of us are “loukikas “and the knowledge of Sanskrit is not upto the level
of grasping “svaras” and pronounciations to do ” Veda Adyayanam “.
Sastras say that every Brahmin should be well-versed in reciting ” Vedas ” atleast ” Svasaka” and
that Sriman Narayanan will be hearing the “parayanam” of Vedas by Brahmins as one among the audience
whenever and wherever Vedas are recited. Adiyen felt that a simple Veda portion can be taken for writing an article,
which will infuse the readers while reading it to search for it and to try to learn it from Vedic Vidvans
This will also facilitate the asthikas who know this already
to enjoy the meanings and glory of this portion of Veda
With the anugraha of Sri Hayagreevan and Poorvacharyal,
, adiyen came to the conclusion that ” Taittiriya Upanishad ” can be analysed and
a summary given in a nut-shell , sothat the asthikas who know this already will recite it
with dedication duly understanding the meanings and glory and
who are new to this can go to an Acharyan to get it taught with svara,
because this Upanishad is in simple and short sentences but discloses everything necessary
and give fruits of adyayanam to those who recite it regularly
This is one among the ten important Upanishads , other Upanishads being 2Esavasyam ,3 Kena,
4 Kato , 5Prasna, 6 Munadaka, 7 Maandukya, 8 Ithreya, 9 Santhokya and 10 Brahatharanya
Upanishad means ” Vedanta”, which is nearer to ” Brahmam”( Baghavan Sriman Narayanan ) and
which tells in detail the “svaroopa”, “roopa”, “viputhi” of ” Brahmam”.
This “Upanishad” is 5th &6th “prasnam” in the “Aranyakam” of ” Taittiriya Saka ” of ” Krishna Yajur Veda
. In the 5th “prasna”, there are 3 divisions as ” Siksha Valli “, ” Ananda Valli or Brahma Valli “, and
” Brughu valli”.
6th “prasna” is called ” Narayana Upanishad “these two prasnas are part and parcel of” Taittiriya Aranyakam ”
Sri Kooranarayana Jeer, Sri Batta Baskar, & Sri Vidyaranyar have given “vyakyanams “( bashyam ) to this 6th prasna.
Sri Upanishad Bashyakarar has given excellent bashyam with mangala slokas to the entire four divisions
of this Taittiriya Upanishad. Even Sri Madvachariyar has given vyakyanam to the entire Taittiriya Upanishad
Tittiri was one of the most important disciple of Sage Vaisampayana.
Sage Yajnavalkya was also equally most important disciple of him .
Sri Vyasa Bhagavan separated ” Vedas” into four parts as ” Rug”, ” Yajus”, ” Saama “,& ” Atharnana”.
Sage Vaisampayana was taught yajur veda and from whom his sishya Yajnavalkya mastered this,
in the Gurukulam.
At the end of his gurukulam life, sage Yajnavalkya attempted to separate the rituals ordaining, injunctory of this Veda
, from explicitely philosophical parts( samhitha, brahmana ) as arranged by Sri Veda Vyasa
This was noticed by Vaisampayana who was furious with his sishya Yajnavalkya and cursed him to return
all that he learnt from him.
Yajnavalkya vomitted the entire “Veda” he learnt from the Sage Vaisampayana
Sage Vaisampayana asked his another sishya” Tittiri “, to absorbe it,
because Vaisampayana did not want all that knowledge taught to Yajnavalkya to go a waste.
The sishya ” Tittiri ” took the form of a bird of that very name and absorbed the remnants vomitted
by the Sage Yajnavalkya.
In doing so, he preserved his ” twice-born” nature( duvijatva).
Birds are also designated alongwith Brahmins , the traditionally twice–born
Vaisampayana, much pleased with his sishya ” Tittiri ” gave anugraha to him
stating that this absorbed Veda portion will be called as ” Taittiriya”.
It was earlier known as ” Yajus”. But after this happenings,
this has been called as ” Krishna Yajus”
Yajnavalkya, severing all connections with his acharyan Vaisampayana,
began meditation on Sri Narayana within the solar orbit to get again
what he lost, from the GOD sri Narayanan directly.
Sri Kulasekhara Azhvar in His
” Mukunda Malai “–17th sloka praises Yajnavalkya stating that the medicine prescribed by this sage
to the dicease of the cycle of deaths and births is to drink the ” amutham” of chanting Bhagavan Naamaas
who is in every one’s heartas ” jyothi maya antharyami “.
The Charitra of Yajnavalkya is wonderful one and adiyen will tell it in another occasion
“Valli” means creeper.This is a creeper in
stringed “unproduced words” of Divine Origin,which when crushed yields
the flow of bliss of Sriman Narayanan( here, crush means adyayanam)
Siksha valli is called “samhitha”.
Ananda valli & Brughu valli together are called ” Varuni Vidya “.
Sri Narayana Upanishad is called ” Yajgiki”.
In other words, we may call these as
Siksha Valli………….Samhithi Upanishad . It deals with samhithopasana
Ananda Valli@ Brahma Valli……|.
It deals with ” Ananda maya vidya” also brahma valli
because it commences thus:”brahmavithapnothiparam”
Brughu valli……Varuna’s upadesa to his son Brughu,called Brughu valli
Narayana Upanishad…..Yajniki Upanishad. This Upanishad was given by
” Yajgan” alias “Narayana Rishi”. Anuvakam is adorned at the centre of this Upanishad,
as ” Kousthuba mani ” adorned at the sacred heart of Sriman Narayanan.
This describes Sri Narayana and also the method of worshipping
Him. Hence, Narayana Upanishad
Adiyen now attempts to give gists of each division
S I K S H A V A L L I
There are six sastras as “anga” to Vedas. One among them is Siksha.
In this, varna, svara, hrasva deerkka maathra, the strength to pronounce etc are told,
besides saama and samhitha (joining the two).akshara,roopa…(poorva roopa, uththra roopa),
santhi , santhanam.
These four explain worldly relation, jyothi relation, vidya relation, praja relation, sareera ( body ), thought ( chinthana)…….
and those who understood all these get praja, cows, Vedanta jnana, food, svarga etc
. Then ” Pranavam “. With this anugraha , knowledge, intelligence , perfect health,sweet conversations speeches,
sound hearing etc will be achieved,
Then Sri Mahalakshmi Stuti—food, clothes, cows, friendship with noble people, fame, glory, abundant wealth,
Subesequent to these, purity of body , mind, atma, exaltation to Vedavids will follow .
There are four Vyahruthis”
Bhoo:, Bhuva:, Suva:, Maha:,.
There are four upasanas also.
If these upasanas are performed , all “Devathaas” will appear
Those who perform this upasana will perform “Brahma Vidya” , and through this will get
absolute and everlasting pleasure in Sri Vaikunta, just like ” Nithya Suris”, at the time of
departing from this body
Then, Pankthopadesam……pankthi—-a chanthas having five aksharas in every “pada”.
In every sareera (body), there are 3 fives,outside 3 fives which should be known clearly.
Then “pranava”. One should learn not only “Vedas”, but also good upadesa from an able Acharyan.
Ever speak truth.
Observe “dharma” at all levels
.Give “guru dakshina”, get married and spread “santhathi”
.Donot eager to earn for this worldly happiness.
Treat mother, father, acharyan, and guest as ” God”.
Do observe “Deva”, ” Pithru” duties.
Do observe ” vaideeka karmas” which are flawless and which are the commands of ” GOD”
through ” Vedas”
Do treat the elders with respect and obedience.
Do give your belongings without attachment with them but with eagerness to the poor
who are eligible to get them as gift ( dhaanam) with shyness,feeling that the gift so given is very megre
, duly performing “sankalpa” according to ” Sastras”.
If doubt arises in doing “karma”, and in ” acharam”, get this cleared from the acts and deeds of “Rishis”,
” Vedic Scholars”, ” Vaideekas “, etc
Adiyen is limiting with this and commences about ” Ananda valli ”
Those who understood” Brahmam” clearly, they will get it.
Those who perform “upasana” of this ” Brahmam”, which is in his heart,
he will live with it in Srivaikunta. From this “Brahmam”—“Paramathma”, panchabootham created,
oushathis (medicines) from the earth, food from the oushathis, sareera from the food.
This sareera is ” annamayam”. in this annamaya sareera, , “pranamaya atma” is there with “vyana”, ” abhana”, etc..
Then ” manomaya”. Vedas are part of this manomayam.
Then ” vignanamayam”. Knowledge, power etc are parts of this “Mayam”
. Then ” Ananda mayam “. ” Sookshma Atma” is anandamayam.
” Motham”–pleasure —when one sees and gets it.
” Pramotham”–pleasure when one uses it. Then various anandams ( pleasures)
” Sathyam jnaana anantham brahma…….. ”
Man’s anandam( manushya anandam )
Hundred times –morethan manushya anandam—-manushya gandharva anandam
Hundred times–manushya gandarva anandam—-Deva Gandarva anandam
Hundred times–Deva gandarva anandam—Pithru anandam
Hundred times —Pithru anandam—–Deva anandam
Hundred times–Deva anandam—Indra anandam
Hundred times–Indra anandam—Bruhaspathi anandam
Hundred times—Bruhaspathi anandam—-Brahma anandam
Hundred times–Brahma anandam—Parabrahma anandam ( Bhagavan )
Let me start about ” Brughu valli ”
This relates to the upadesa by “Varuna”to His son ” Brughu”.
Varunan explains which is ” Brahmam” to his son.
He says that annam, pranan eyes, nose, mind, speech etc are not ” Brahmam”.
These are the tools to know, understand “Brahmam”.
Prana maya, mano maya, vijnana maya and then ananda maya.
Brahmam is ananda mayan.
But, annam ( food ) is most important. Annam is the basic for all it’s jagatkaaranaa.
It should not be abused;ridiculed.It should not be rejected. It should be respected.
One should try to earn/acquire it with any mode.
One who does ” Ananda Vidya” with upasana of ” Brahmam” ( Bhagavan)
gets plentiful annam ( food ) progeny, merit, cow, knowledge, fame etc etc and attains “moksha”/ “Paramapadha”
where he travels along with Bhagavan, does all services ( kaimkaryams) to Him .
All the worlds emanated out of bliss of SRI Narayana, sustained in Him and by Him and absorbed finally by Him .
This process is a joy for Him ( pleasure–anandam)
When a person finds that one is firmly established in this invisible Supreme, beyond-full-grasp, unattached to any place ,
Brahman, he gets rid of all fears. The life on this earth is sacred as an opportunity to reach Sri Narayanan .
The body is made up of food. Food is sacred. Water, earth, air, heat ( agni ) Akasa are in combination give us food.
Thus food is God
The eternal “Sama gana” praises Sri Narayanan
SRI NARAYANA UPANISHAD
This Upanishad praises Sri Narayanan in the first 20 sentences.
He is at the ocean i.e. Ksheera saagaram, at Soorya mandalam, at Sri Vaikuntam ( Paramapadam ).
He is light (Jyothis ) He gives lights to all lights . He resides in the hearts of all His creatures.
He performs ” Srushti ( creation ), ” Sthithi ( protection ) and samharam ( destruction ).
From Him, Moolaprakruthi appears.He is the reason for all times ( paksha, ruthu, maasa, ayana etc )
Then,manthras about “agni”, ” rudra”, “vinayaka”, “garuda”, “durga”, ” Narayana”.
Then ” Dhoorva Sooktham”, ” Mruththika Sooktham”, then, “Akamarshana”sooktha.
Till this “abhikamana”Kaalam.
Then “upadhanam. —- collection of flowers, thulsi, to perform ” Pooja” ( Aradhana) .
Durga, Madhu sooktham, Krutha sooktham,
” Na karmana na prajaya dhanena “–No ” moksham” by dharma, ardha, kaama.
Only through Vedantha Vijnana, sanyasa and also through “sathvika thyaka”,
it can be achieved. Then “dhahara vidya”. Then ” Narayana
Anuvakam “, ” Purusha sooktham”.
Sri Narayanan is upasana deivam through all “Vidyas”.
The words ” Parabrahmam”, “Paranjyothis”, ” Parathathvam”, ” Brahma”, ” Siva”, ” Indra”, “Akshran” etc
denote Sri Narayanan.He is the upasana deivam through “moksha Vidya”, ” Para Vidya” etc.
He is “Sarva Vyaphi”.He is the creator–material out ofwhich prapanchams are created.
He is also every auxiliary cause helping in the creation….
He is the bestower of all desired fruits.
He resides in a very small hole in the lotus–like heart of each and every jeevathmas.
He is the reason for all prapanchas( Jagat kaarana), the cause of the paramakaaranam,
ultimate, &primordial cause or cause of every kind .
His superiority threatens you to shut your mouth , but His easy accessibility, His capacity( soulabhyam)
to mix with the bakthals freely give courage to converse with Him to praise Him through “stotras” ,
by reciting ” Vedas” and prostrating before Him countless times.
He is in the midst of lightening with clouds in the ” jaadaraagni” as “Jyothi”
Then, upasana in ” Soorya Mandala”
Bhagavath Aradhana, praising “bhoomi” water etc. ( throughwhich we get water flowers, sandal etc for aradhana ),
Then ” Praanaayaamam”
Then ” Jabham” “Upasthaanam”, ” Vaisvadevam “, ” Pancha maha yajnam”,
Then “Praanaahoothi manthras ”
Then ” Swaathyaayam”, “manthra jabham”, ” Paaraayanam”,
Recital of Medha sooktham, ” thrisubharna brahma sooktham and
then ” Yogam ” ( Parathathva niroopana, Jnanasadhana niroopana, Jnana Yajja)
Narayana Upanishad describes Yoga/ thapas which are 12 in nature
i.e. Sathyam, Thapas, Thamam, Samam, Dhaanam, Dharmam, Prajananam, Agnis, Agnihothram,
Yajnam, Maanasam, and Nyaasam
. Among these , “nyaaasam ” is the best.
Nyaasam means ” baranyaasam “, ” prapaththi”, ” Athma samarppanaa”
You are the Supreme to be attained; you are the all pervader; you are all the creator making living things breathe;
you are the light of lights; adiyen takes refuge in You, after discovering You at longlast.
You are Brahmam. Adiyen sought all along and now found You
This is the prayer through body, mind, speech, associating everything with Him by reciting
the ” manthra” as taught by Acharyals
TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD is a marvelous composition that captures both recitors and listeners
with it’s music and provides altogether a novel conception of the ” Supreme ” reality,
receiving explicit & adequate formulation
This explains thus :–
This is Sriman Narayana fromwhom all worlds emanate, inwhom all sustains and inwhom all are absorbed
and dissolved. He is ” Anandamaya” blissful. He is the innermost indweller of the human personality
TAITTIRIYA UPANISHAD is recited extensively in all auspicious occasions
such as household worship, daily temple worship, other similar occasions that prescribe vedic recitals
To sum up,
this Upanishad explains the upward journey of the departed soul after release from fleshly bondage of this sareeram
and the instruction regarding the whole of one’s life or a grand sacrifice , symbolically to be conceived in terms of
spiritual paraphernalia corresponding to the ingredients in terms of the ” Performer “,
His companion, the fire, the fees, the alter etc( known as Purusha Vidya)
Life on earth is sacred as told before . This is an opportunity to seek His lotus-feet through the anugraha of Sri Mahalakshmi,
without further cycle of deaths and births forwhich the parayanam of ” Taittiriyam”
including Sri Narayana Upanishad will lead him to the eternal bliss
Sarvam Sree Hayagreeva preeyatham